Research carried out by the Health Foundation’s REAL Centre finds that the next decade will see increases in demand for services from rising levels of chronic disease and a rapidly ageing population – putting pressure on hospital services that are already stretched with bed occupancy rates of close to 90%.

The analysis finds that even if the NHS continues to reduce the length of time people stay in hospital, 23,000 to 39,000 extra beds could be needed in 2030/31 to maintain pre-pandemic standards of care – a 20–35% increase. The Health Foundation indicates that the build cost could be between £17bn and £29bn, but cautions that this depends on a range of factors, with recent rises in inflation significantly increasing construction costs.

Over this decade, more hospital capacity will almost certainly be required to meet people’s health needs. The NHS has fewer beds per 100,000 population and shorter hospital stays compared to other health systems in comparable countries. While this is a sign of efficiency, increasing demand is now causing critical pressures in hospitals.

But more beds are only part of the answer, and policymakers have choices about how to best meet demand for care: investments outside of hospital, particularly primary care and adult social care, are also needed to improve people’s health and reduce avoidable demand for hospital care.

There is no avoiding the need to expand health system capacity to meet people's health needs in future, the Health Foundation argues.
Anita Charlesworth, Director of Research and the REAL Centre at the Health Foundation, said:

'Our projections show meeting the future demand for hospital care could require a far larger increase in bed supply than we would expect under the government’s current hospital plan, and significant additional funding for the DHSC capital budget.

'At the moment, there is no national assessment of the amount of capacity the NHS needs. Hospitals are full, and long waits for ambulances and A&E are a reflection of the pressures on hospital capacity. How quickly patients can safely be discharged plays a major role in the number of extra beds the NHS will need. The pressures hospitals face are linked to a lack of capacity in social and community care, making it hard to discharge patients. Policymakers need to look at capacity in the round, inside and outside of hospital, and set out a realistic plan for how the NHS will meet rising demand over the long-term.

'But whatever choices are made to meet rising demand, doing nothing isn’t an option.'

Media contact

Ash Singleton

Further reading


How many hospital beds will the NHS need over the coming decade?

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